Water hammer damage is caused by mechanical failure. Therefore, the pipeline pressure, which changes from kinetic energy to static state, is known to break through the pipeline or damage the pipeline support and damage the pipeline joint. For valves, the water hammer can vibrate through the spool, which may cause the spool, gasket or packing to fail.
Valves are best protected against sudden pressure changes in the piping system. These include slowing the closing of the valve itself or providing greater rigidity as the closing element approaches the seat. To prevent pressure fluctuations, the valve should be opened and closed at a uniform rate of change. Water hammers can also be reduced by placing some type of anti-surge measure on the piping system.